The most common causes of vitiligo are according to the experts:

Autoimmune disease

The prevailing thought is that Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease, a condition in which your own immune system attacks the cells that produce melanin. Usually, the disorder slowly expands, and more and more pigment disappears. The cause is not yet clear, most medical professionals regard it as a blend of genetic engineering and autoimmune disease. Relatively many vitiligo patients also suffer from another autoimmune disease, such as Type 1 diabetes, Addison’s disease, thyroid disease, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, pernicious anemia or psoriasis.

Stress

In addition, another possible cause is oxidative stress. A 2013 study conducted by The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda in India indicates that the relationship between oxidative stress and an overactive immune system is a possible cause of vitiligo symptoms.

Vitamin B12 and Folic acid deficiency

Several studies have been conducted on the role of vitamin B12 and folic acid in vitiligo patients.

One of the first studies in this field was done by LF Montes et al. and published in the journal Cutis: Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner in 1992. In this study, levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 were in a group of vitiligo patients compared to another group of normal patients. The results showed that the levels of both vitamins were lower in the vitiligo group than the normal group.

Another study published in the Egyptian Dermatology Online Journal in 2012 confirmed the low levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 in vitiligo patients.
A third study published in 1997 in the journal Acta Dermato-Venereologica involved 100 vitiligo patients. The study took place for 2 years and was accompanied by the use of the combination of folic acid and vitamin B12 supplements with sun exposure.

The results of the study showed that further depigmentation stopped with 64% of patients; Clear repigmentation was observed at 52% and total repigmentation in 6% of patients.
During the study, patients were asked to combine these dietary supplements with sun exposure during the summer months and UVB lamps in winter.

The results clearly showed that the combination of folic acid, vitamin B12 and UV radiation was the most effective option.

Sources:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9394983

http://www.vitiligosupport.org/treatments_and_research/phototherapy.cfm

http://www.progressivehealth.com/combo-therapy-best-vitiligo.htm

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23425123

http://www.vitiligo.nl

Mein Vital Conzept – Dr. Med. Jean-Bernard Delbé